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World War II had a dramatic impact on women's lives. The most visible change involved the appearance of large numbers of women in uniform, as more than 250,000 women joined the WACs, the Army Nurses Corps, the WAVES, and the Navy Nurses Corps. The war also challenged the conventional image of female behavior, as "Rosie the Riveter" became the popular symbol of women who worked in defense industries. Wartime transformations in women's lives are examined in Susan M. Hartmann, The Homefront and Beyond: Women in the 1940s (1982) and D'Ann Campbell, Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (1984).
World War Two
On June 18, 1812, President Madison of the United States and Congress declared war on Great Britain. On June 25, the French emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte led his army in Europe across the Nieman River into Russia.(1) Although these two events were thousands of kilometers apart they were directly connected to each other. To some extent, the Americans declared war in protest against measures that were part of Britain's effort to defeat Napoleon with the use of blockades. There are many interesting aspects to the War of 1812, including the fact of why it even happened. Britain and the United States had more reasons to remain friends than to start a war. The intent of this essay is to examine American and British objectives during this war, and despite the Treaty of Ghent, conclude Canadians won the War of 1812.
Britain, in their eagerness to starve out France, set up a series of blockades along the European coast.(2) These blockades sought to exclude neutral ships from trading with France and her Allies. The very powerful British Royal Navy would search American vessels, most times within sight of land. British deserters provided England with the excuse it needed to search American ships at sea. Desertions were commonplace in the Royal Navy, harsh treatment and punishments were a way of life to British seamen. In comparison, crews on American merchant vessels enjoyed much better treatment, lots of food, good pay and above all, limited punishment. Royal Navy boarding parties arbitrarily selected deserters who, for their crimes were whipped, strung up by the yardarm or keelhauled.(3) As a bonus, the British impressed, kidnapped would be a better word, the most fit and healthy among the American crews into the Royal Navy, and in most cases seized the cargo. Facing well armed British warships, American merchant ships were powerless to resist and were sometimes captured outright. This treatment of American people and vessels at sea would not go unnoticed by the newly formed colonies of the United States. In his speech to congress June 1,1812 President Madison anger at the British Royal Navy and their tactics on the open seas, was very apparent
"Thousands of American citizens under the safeguard of public law and the national flag have been torn from their country and everything dear to them... Against this crying enormity, which Great Brit...
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...ton, Flames Across The Border, -5
46. Stanley, 1812 Land Operations,
49. Berton, Flames Across The Border,
50. Ronald Way, "The Day of Chrysler's Farm,"
Canadian Geographic Journal (June,1961)
51. Berton, Flames Across The Border,
52. Stanley, 1812 Land Operations,
57. Glen Frankfurter, Baneful Domination (Ontario, 1971) -4
58. Morton, Military History.
59. Berton, Flames Across The Border.
60. Richard Gwyn, The 49th Paradox Canada in North America (Toronto, 1985)
61. Frankfurter, Baneful Domination. -4
62. Berton, Flames Across The Border. -3
63 . Stacey, "The War of 1812 In Canadian History."
Ontario History (Summer 1958) -5
64. Arthur Campbell Turner, The Unique Partnership Britain and The United States
(New York, 1971)
65. Robert Craig Brown and . Wise, Canada Views The United States
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