A third serious setback was Egypt. The collapse of Hosni Mubarak’s regime in 2011, amid giant protests, raised hopes that democracy would spread in the Middle East. But the euphoria soon turned to despair. Egypt’s ensuing elections were won not by liberal activists (who were hopelessly divided into a myriad of Pythonesque parties) but by Muhammad Morsi’s Muslim Brotherhood. Mr Morsi treated democracy as a winner-takes-all system, packing the state with Brothers, granting himself almost unlimited powers and creating an upper house with a permanent Islamic majority. In July 2013 the army stepped in, arresting Egypt’s first democratically elected president, imprisoning leading members of the Brotherhood and killing hundreds of demonstrators. Along with war in Syria and anarchy in Libya, this has dashed the hope that the Arab spring would lead to a flowering of democracy across the Middle East.
The case of Sri Ianka political history is not a good one. The minority Tamil feel less represented in the government which is dominated by Sinhalese. This has lead to rebellion against the government and worse of occurrences is when a Prime Minister was assassinated in 1959 and president Premadasa assassinated in current president Chandrika Kumaratunga is also facing rebellion. In 1999 she was wounded in a terrorist attack. Tamils have felt sidelined by majority Sinhalese in terms of cultural and religious background. The result has been rebellion by Tamils against the government.